I'm using the ec2-public-images/fedora-core4-base.manifest.xml image on Amazon's EC2 system. (I don't know how this differs from the develop-image.manifest.xml, but wanted to start with something as basic as possible).
This image comes without a GCC compiler. There's almost nothing you can make out of Linux without a compiler.
Adding a compiler is a piece of cake with this command
yum install gcc
That's it. super easy. You can find more about yum (such as yum update) here.